What is Linguistic Anthropology?
Linguistics is one of the traditional branches of anthropology. In the early days of anthropology, when many Native languages had never been written down, every anthropologist was trained in the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet and expected to be able to transcribe stories and conversation in the native language of the people they were living with. Presently, few anthropologists who are not linguists are so trained, as this has become one of the most specialized of the anthropology sub-disciplines.
While linguists in general look at the history,
evolution and internal structure of all human languages, the
field is diverse. Comparative linguists have traditionally studied
the similarities and differences between languages in an effort
to understand their history and evolution. Sociolinguists look
at how language affects society, and how society helps shape
languages. Like early anthropologists, descriptive linguists
still go into the field, recording undocumented languages and
producing grammars, dictionaries, and collections of texts for
many of the world’s 6,000 languages. Since the 1960’s,
a major branch of linguistics, called formal or cognitive linguistics,
has sought to explain the nature of language itself, including
the relationship between language, the brain and behavior. It
should be noted that being able to analyze languages does not
necessarily mean that a linguist is fluent in any language other
than his/her own mother tongue.
Linguistic anthropology is now playing an active role in the preservation of Native American languages. The Anthropology Department at OU offers a variety of Oklahoma Native languages that fulfill the college foreign language requirement. Native speakers teach these classes, which are presently offered in Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Kiowa, and Cheyenne. The SNOMNH is in the process of building a collection of sound and video recordings of native speakers. The Native American Languages collection also includes teaching materials, such as curriculums, lesson plans and classroom materials created by a numerous native language teachers. The collection is a resource center for native language teachers and students in addition to academic researchers. The Native American Languages Department actively works with linguistics for native communities, including language documentation, maintenance, and teacher training.