Table of Contents
SAM NOBLE OKLAHOMA MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY
FOSSIL BATS OF THE AMERICAS

Morphological characters and character states used to estimate phylogeny of the Natalidae

1. Coronoid process of dentary, height relative to articular condyle: (0) higher than condyle; (1) same level as condyle; (2) lower than condyle
2. In lateral view, angular process of dentary projects: (0) at or below level of occlusal plane of toothrow; (1) above level of occlusal plane
3. In lateral view, base of angular process of dentary is situated: (0) ventral to condyle; (1) at a level between condyle and tip of coronoid process
4. Angular process shape: (0) straight; (1) slightly curved; (2) strongly curved
5. In posterior view, angular process is: (0) in same vertical plane as condyle and ascending ramus; (1) slightly flared laterally; (2) strongly flared laterally
6. Position of mandibular foramen: (0) opens above level of alveolar margin of lower toothrow; (1) opens at same level as alveolar margin
7. Size of anterior mental foramen (ventral to lower incisors): (0) large, extending distally beneath i2; (1) small, extending distally beneath i1
8. Spacing of lower incisor alveoli: (0) alveoli of i1 and i2 nearly coalesced, small gap between i2 and i3; (1) alveoli of i1, i2, and i3 evenly spaced
9. Shape of articular surface of mandibular symphysis in medial view: (0) rounded oval with small ventral projection; (1) narrower, elongate oval with long posteroventral projection; (2) elongate oval with no ventral projection
10. Crown of p3: (0) having two posterior crests separated by a concavity; (1) having one posterior or lingual crest
11. Occlusal outline of p3: (0) long and strongly laterally compressed; (1) shorter and broader
12. Alignment of paraconid of m1: (0) in line with other lingual cusps; (1) situated slightly labial in relation to a line drawn through metaconid and entoconid
13. Carnassial-like notches in cristid obliqua and postcristid of lower molars: (0) absent; (1) weakly developed; (2) strongly developed
14. Labial cingular cusp of P4: (0) absent; (1) weak; (2) strong
15. P4 occlusal outline: (0) indented anterolingually; (1) not indented anterolingually
16. P4 lingual outline: (0) broadly rounded; (1) narrowed anteroposteriorly
17. Mesostyle on upper molars: (0) normal; (1) extended anteromedially as a curved mesostylar crest
18. Upper molars ectocingulum posterior to parastyle and anterior to metastyle: (0) present but weak; (1) absent
19. M1 postprotocrista: (0) extends only to "metaconule" region (i.e., a true metaconule is absent), does not reach metacone nor metacingulum; (1) becomes confluent with distal cingulum (metacingulum); (2) joins lingual base of metacone; (3) extends as ridge onto relatively well developed talon
20. Cochlea posteroventral tubercle: (0) absent; (1) present, with lateral hook; (2) present, with lateral and medial projections; (3) present but weakly developed
21. Cochlea: (0) makes about 2 1/4 turns; (1) makes about 2 1/2 turns; (2) makes more than 2 1/2 turns
22. Epitrochlea of humerus: (0) with no medial process; (1) with weak medial process; (2) with prominent medial process
23. Distal spinous process of humerus: (0) separated from medial edge of trochlea by small notch; (1) no notch
24. Shape of spinous process of humerus: (0) short with blunt tip; (1) intermediate in length with lateral projection at tip; (2) long and curved laterad; (3) long and nearly straight
25. Braincase shape: (0) inflated; (1) relatively uninflated
26. Cranial flexion (rostral-forehead angle): 0) forehead not sharply elevated above rostrum (>135°); (1) more sharply elevated above rostrum (<135°)
27. Upper canine height relative to P4: (0) taller than P4; (1) about equal to P4
28. Lower canine height relative to p4 (0) taller than p4; (1) about equal to p4
29. P2 size: (0) normal; (1) greatly reduced
30. Rostrum length: (0) longer than or equal to braincase; (1) shorter than braincase
31. Sides of rostrum: (0) not markedly inflated; (1) markedly inflated
32. Posterior border of palate: (0) not or slightly emarginated; (1) deeply emarginated
33. Elongated styliform process of ectotympanic: (0) absent; (1) present, extends anteromedially and contacts pterygoid process
34. Anterior portion (maxillary branch) of zygomatic arch: (0) shallow and gracile; (1) deeper and more robust
35. Cleft between premaxillae: (0) deep, widely separating I1s; (1) tiny, I1s nearly meet at midline
36. Basisphenoid pits: (0) absent or shallow, double; (1) moderately deep, double; (2) deep and steep-sided, single
37. Auditory bullae: (0) not enlarged, covers half or less of the periotic; (1) greatly enlarged, covers most of the periotic
38. Infraorbital canal length: (0) relatively short, extending from level of P4 to M1; (1) elongated, extending from level of P2 to M2
39. Fossa at anterior edge of orbit (a deep, sharp-edged, funnel-shaped cavity that houses the lacrimal foramen and posterior end of the infraorbital canal): (0) absent; (1) present
40. Fusion of 7th cervical and anterior thoracic vertebrae: (0) C7 not fused to T1; (1) C7 and T1 fused; (2) C7 and T1-2 fused; (3) C7 and T1-3 fused
41. Fusion of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (to form what is often termed a lumbar "shield" or "tube," consisting of tenth and eleventh thoracic and all but the last one or two lumbar vertebrae): (0) lumbar "shield" absent; (1) lumbar "shield" present
42. Number of unfused posterior lumbar vertebrae: (0) all lumbar vertebrae free and unfused; (1) only last two lumbar vertebrae unfused; (2) only last lumbar vertebra unfused
43. Shape of manubrium of sternum: (0) not expanded laterally; (1) expanded laterally and posteriorly into platelike structure
44. Shape of ribs: (0) normal, not expanded or fused; (1) broadly expanded but not fused to one another; (2) coalesced with each other and with sternum, especially ventrally
45. Length of caudal vertebrae 3 through 6: (0) not elongated; (1) greatly elongated
46. Proximal end of femur: (0) not sharply bent laterally; (1) sharply bent laterally
47. Shape of femur head: (0) rounded; (1) squarish
48. Greater and lesser trochanters of femur: (0) unreduced, typical for bats; (1) moderately reduced; (2) highly reduced
49. P3 size: (0) normal; (1) greatly reduced; (2) absent
50. p2 size: (0) normal, about equal to p3; (1) greatly reduced