Table of Contents
SAM NOBLE OKLAHOMA MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY
FOSSIL BATS OF THE AMERICAS

Vespertilionidae:
Ancenycteris rasmusseni
Type Specimen: Texas Tech University P4093, left dentary with i1-m2.

Type Locality and Horizon: Anceney local fauna, Gallatin County, Montana, USA; middle Miocene (Barstovian); Madison Valley Formation.

Diagnosis (from Sutton and Genoways 1974): Vespertilionid bat with dental formula i3, c1, p2, m3. Incisors overlapping; canine with cingulid not reaching above level of incisors; p2 small; p4 laterally compressed; molars with open trigonid and nearly parallel cristid obliqua and entocristid; entocristid beginning lateral to entoconid and ending medial to metaconid; talonid basin long and narrow.

Remarks: The type and only specimen of Ancenycteris rasmusseni is lost, although a mold and cast were made of the specimen prior to its disappearance (B. Henry, personal communication, 1989)

Primary references: Sutton and Genoways 1974


Antrozous pallidus
Records:
Higgins Quarry B, Higgins local fauna, Lipscomb County, Texas, USA; late Miocene (early Hemphillian); Ogallala Formation; Dalquest and Patrick 1989 named Pizonyx wheeleri from Higgins, but the type specimen and other specimens from this site were referred to Antrozous pallidus by Czaplewski 1993b.

Beck Ranch local fauna, Scurry County, Texas, USA; late Miocene (late Hemphillian); Ogallala Formation (Dalquest 1978).

Clark County, Nevada, USA; Miocene or Pliocene (Hemphillian or Blancan); Horse Spring Formation (Czaplewski 1993a).

SE of Hammett (Sand Point local fauna), Owyhee County, Idaho, USA; late Pliocene (middle Blancan); Glenns Ferry Formation (Thewissen and Smith 1987).

Wolf Ranch local fauna, San Pedro Valley, Arizona, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan); St. David Formation; the specimen from this site was initially reported as Simonycteris stocki by Harrison 1978, but was later changed to A. pallidus by Czaplewski 1993a.

Antrozous sp.
Records:
TVOR site, Fort Polk, Vernon Parish, Louisiana, USA; middle Miocene (late Barstovian); Castor Creek Member, Fleming Formation (Schiebout 1997).

Norden Bridge Quarry, Brown County, Nebraska, USA (cf. Antrozous sp.); middle Miocene (middle Barstovian); Valentine Formation (Voorhies 1990).

Inglis 1A local fauna, Citrus County, Florida, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan) (Morgan 1991).


{40}Anzanycteris anzensis
Type Specimen: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County LACM 19300, anterior portion of cranium with mandible in articulation.

Type Locality and Horizon: LACM locality 6583 (Arroyo Seco local fauna), Upper Tapiado Wash, badlands in Anza Borrego Desert State Park, San Diego County, California, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan); Diablo Member, Palm Spring Formation.

Diagnosis (from White 1969): Mandible with i1 and i2 crowded together, i2 markedly reduced, with simple crown, and appressed into indentation near base of lower canine; angular process slender and projecting almost horizontally and posteriad; weakly developed cingulum on lingual edge of C1-M3.

Other records:
LACM loc. 6552, (Arroyo Seco local fauna), badlands in Anza Borrego Desert State Park, San Diego County, California, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan); Diablo Member, Palm Spring Formation.


Corynorhinus alleganiensis
Type Specimen: National Museum of Natural History USNM 12412, skull with incomplete dentition and lacking bullae and zygomatic arches.

Type Locality and Horizon: Cumberland Cave, Allegany County, Maryland, USA; early Pleistocene (late Irvingtonian); cave deposits.

Diagnosis (from Gidley and Gazin 1933): Skull close in size to that of Corynorhinus rafinesquii. Frontal region not so highly inflated above dorsal plane of rostrum. Median depression in the dorsal surface of muzzle not so deep. Depth of posterior portion of skull from occipital condyles to top of interparietal less. Occipital condyles slightly farther forward. Temporal ridges do not unite posteriorly in a median ridge.


Corynorhinus tetralophodon
Type Specimen: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, former California Institute of Technology Museum of Paleontology collection, LACM (CIT) 192/2989, well-preserved cranium with worn teeth, lacking auditory bullae, hamular processes, incisors, right C1, and both P1s.

Type Locality and Horizon: Cueva de San Josecito, near Aramberri, Nuevo León state, México; late Pleistocene (late Rancholabrean); cave deposits.

Diagnosis (from Handley 1955): Resembles Recent Corynorhinus in most cranial details. Rostrum broad and flattened; anterior nares, relative to greatest length of skull, small and rounded in outline (dorsal view); skull relatively narrow; braincase relatively shallow; zygoma with postorbital expansion in posterior third of arch; supraorbital ridges lacking; temporal ridges prominent and converging posteriorly so that they meet, but do not completely merge; intermaxillary notch relatively small; extension of palate posterior to M3 relatively short; median postpalatal process styliform, basial pits deep and well-defined. Tooth rows crowded; teeth relatively fragile (not robust); canine with small internal cingular cusp; P4 wider than long, with anterointernal cingular cusp only slightly indicated; no trace of hypocone cusp on molars; M3 with well-developed fourth commissure, almost equaling third commissure in length.



Corynorhinus sp.
Records:
Inglis 1A local fauna, Citrus County, Florida, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan) (as Plecotus sp.; Morgan 1991).

Eptesicus fuscus
Records:
Beck Ranch local fauna (as “bat, near Eptesicus fuscus”, Scurry County, Texas, USA; late Miocene (late Hemphillian); Ogallala Formation (Dalquest 1978).

Unnamed locality (as E. cf. E. fuscus), San Bernardino County, California, USA; Pliocene (Blancan); western facies of Old Woman Formation (Czaplewski 1993a).


{44}Eptesicus sp.
Records:
(As cf. Eptesicus) from Old Cabin Quarry (Redington fauna), San Pedro Valley, Arizona, USA; late Miocene (Hemphillian); St. David Formation (Czaplewski 1993a).

Inglis 1A local fauna, Citrus County, Florida, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan) (Morgan 1991).


Karstala silva
Type Specimen: Florida Museum of Natural History UF 108672, left m2. [image ]

Type Locality and Horizon: Thomas Farm local fauna, NE of Bell, Gilchrist County, Florida, USA; early Miocene (early Hemingfordian); Miocene clays and sands infilling a paleokarst sinkhole developed within Eocene marine limestone.

Diagnosis (from Czaplewski and Morgan 2000): Microchiropteran similar to most Vespertilionidae having myotodont lower molars. Differs from described genera of vespertilionids except Antrozous (including Bauerus as a subgenus; Koopman, 1993) in the presence of a relatively strong, steeply inclined lingual cingulid at the foot of the trigonid valley in m1 and m2. The lingual cingulid (“metacristid” of Menu, 1985:fig. 2) occurs as a small crest on the anterolingual base of the metaconid and extends steeply downward and forward to the posterolingual base of the paraconid. Differs from Antrozous in much larger size. Further differs from Antrozous in relatively longer talonid, more labially situated hypoconulid, and entoconid aligned with paraconid-metaconid, not lingually displaced. Further differs from Antrozous (Bauerus) in taller, better developed paraconid. Trigonid of m3 lacks lingual cingulid; talonid is reduced and lacks hypoconulid. M1 and M2 postprotocrista-metaloph extends from protocone to base of metacone, closing off the trigon basin (median valley) posteriorly. M1 has a unique short and low but sharp crest that extends from the juncture of the postprotocrista and metaloph down the posterior wall of the talon, where it stops abruptly before reaching the postcingulum (thus forming a Y-shaped structure with the postprotocrista-metaloph). Humerus differs from that known for North American genera in its combination of large size, rounded head, deep supraglenoid pit, lack of a notch between medial side of trochlea and blunt spinous process, and small olecranon fossa.

Primary references: Czaplewski and Morgan 2000


Lasionycteris noctivagans
Records:
Beck Ranch local fauna, Scurry County, Texas, USA; late Miocene (late Hemphillian); Ogallala Formation (Dalquest 1978).


Lasiurus borealis
Records:
Beck Ranch local fauna, Scurry County, Texas, USA; late Miocene (late Hemphillian); Ogallala Formation (Dalquest 1978).


iLasiurus cf. L. blossevilli
Records:
House Mountain (Verde local fauna), Yavapai County, Arizona, USA; early Pliocene (early Blancan); Verde Formation (Czaplewski 1993a).


Lasiurus fossilis
Type Specimen: University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology 25763, left ramus with p4-m2.

Type Locality and Horizon: Fox Canyon (Rexroad local fauna), XI Ranch, Meade County, Kansas, USA; early Pliocene (early Blancan); Rexroad Formation.

Diagnosis (from Hibbard 1950): A bat larger than Lasiurus borealis (Müller) and smaller than L. cinereus (Beauvois). The lower dentition consists of 3-1-2-3 (incisors-canine-premolars-molars).

Other records:
Fossil Creek Roadcut, SE of Fossil Butte, western Idaho, USA; Pliocene (middle Blancan); Glenns Ferry Formation (Thewissen and Smith 1987).


Lasiurus sp.
Records:
Pratt Slide (Pratt Quarry), Brown County, Nebraska, USA; late Miocene (late Clarendonian); Merritt Dam Member, Ash Hollow Formation (Czaplewski et al. 1999).

Big Springs, Antelope County, Nebraska, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan); Long Pine Formation (Czaplewski et al. 1999).


Miomyotis floridanus
Type Specimen: Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology 4055, left humerus lacking the lesser tuberosity and most of the capitulum.

Type Locality and Horizon: Thomas Farm local fauna, NE of Bell, Gilchrist County, Florida, USA; early Miocene (early Hemingfordian); Miocene clays and sands infilling a paleokarst sinkhole developed within Eocene marine limestone.

Diagnosis (from Lawrence 1943): Humerus with distal articular surface not displaced laterally, vertical from edge of trochlea falls external to shaft; epitrochlea moderately developed, supporting a blunt spinous process, separated from trochlea by a groove, with a sharpened inner edge overhanging the groove; posterior margin of combined epitrochlea and spinous process in line with main axis of shaft; ridge of capitellum as in Suaptenos, depth of reentrant proximal to this greater than half the thickness of shaft at this point; trochlear groove and ridge of capitellum not parallel with main axis of shaft.

Primary references: Lawrence 1943


Myotis cf. M. yumanensis
Records:
Whisenhunt Quarry local fauna, Beaver County, Oklahoma, USA; late Miocene (Clarendonian); Laverne Formation (Dalquest et al. 1996).


Myotis rectidentis
Type Specimen: Southern Methodist University, Shuler Museum of Paleontology SMU 61780, left dentary with c1-m2. [image holotype jaw (SMU 61780); Photo by Dale Winkler.]

Type Locality and Horizon: Laubach Cave (now known as Inner Space Caverns; Dorsey 1977), Georgetown, Travis County, Texas, USA; late Pleistocene (late Rancholabrean); cave deposits.

Diagnosis (from Choate and Hall 1967): Large for the genus (crown-length of m1-m3, 3.70-4.05 mm; crown-length of M1-M3, 4.45 mm); c1 long (0.80-1.60 mm) relative to length (also depth) of dentary, axis almost vertical; dorsal half of dentary (ascending ramus) flared outward; p2 crowded in depression between p1 and p3; dentary relatively thick.


Myotis sp.
Records:
Annies Geese Cross Quarry, Knox County, Nebraska, USA (cf. Myotis); middle Miocene (late Barstovian); Crookston Bridge Member, Valentine Formation (Czaplewski 1991).

Wakeeney local fauna, Trego County, Kansas, USA; late Miocene (Clarendonian); Ogallala Formation (Wilson 1968).

Ashfall Fossil Beds (Poison Ivy Quarry), Antelope County, Nebraska, USA; late Miocene (middle Clarendonian); Cap Rock Member, Ash Hollow Formation (Czaplewski et al. 1999).

Rattlesnake fauna, Picture Gorge area, central Oregon, USA (?Myotis); late Miocene (early Hemphillian); Rattlesnake Formation (Martin 1983).

Clark County, Nevada, USA; late Miocene or Pliocene (late Hemphillian or Blancan); Horse Spring Formation (Czaplewski 1993a)

Inglis 1A local fauna, Citrus County, Florida, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan) (Morgan 1991).


Oligomyotis casementi
Type Specimen: Southern Illinois University P-418, distal left humerus.

Type Locality and Horizon: Logan County, Colorado, USA; early Oligocene (middle Orellan); Cedar Creek Member, White River Formation.

Diagnosis (from Galbreath 1962): Distinguished by the combination of the following structural features of the distal end of the humerus: vertical edge of trochlea is inside the plane of the medial edge of the shaft; spinous process separated from trochlea by a well-developed groove; inner edge of spinous process smooth and rounded; epitrochlea ha a broad base; lateral ridge of capitulum small in circumference, tube like and without proximally directed spine; and rounded part of capitulum not distinctly keeled.

Remarks: The type (and only known) specimen may be lost.

Primary references: Galbreath 1962


?Oligomyotis or ?Myotis sp.
Records: South of Chadron, Dawes County, Nebraska, USA; late Oligocene (early Arikareean); sand and gravel channel near base of Arikaree Group (Czaplewski et al. 1999).


Pipistrellus (Perimyotis?) sp.
Records:
Inglis 1A local fauna, Citrus County, Florida, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan) (Morgan 1991).


Plionycteris trusselli
Type Specimen: Instituto de Geología, Ciudad Universitaria 1165, right maxillary fragment with P4-M1.

Type Locality and Horizon: IGCU CH-15 near Yepómera, Chihuahua, México; Yepómera (or Rincón) fauna; late Miocene (Hemphillian); unnamed formation.

Diagnosis (from Lindsay and Jacobs 1985): Vespertilionid bat having a straight posterior margin and a prominent parastylar shelf on P4; central basin of M1 is closed between the protocone and metacone by the postprotocrista, and the hypocone is small but rounded, distinct from the postprotocrista and protocone.

Primary references: Lindsay and Jacobs 1985


Potamonycteris biperforatus
Type Specimen: University of Nebraska State Museum 52008, left half of a rostrum with broken crowns of M2-M3 and alveoli for other upper teeth.

Type Locality and Horizon: Annies Geese Cross Quarry, Knox County, Nebraska, USA; middle Miocene (late Barstovian); Crookston Bridge Member, Valentine Formation.

Diagnosis (from Czaplewski 1991): May be distinguished from all other vespertilionid genera by the following combination of characteristics: double infraorbital foramen; dental formula for upper toothrow I1 or 2, C1, P2, M3; upper molars lack hypocone and hypoconal shelf. M3 has premetacrista equal in length to postparacrista.


Simonycteris stocki
Type Specimen: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, former California Institute of Technology Museum of Paleontology collection, LACM (CIT) 394, facial portion of cranium with several broken teeth

Type Locality and Horizon: CalTech locality near Curtis Ranch, San Pedro Valley, Arizona, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan); St. David Formation.

Diagnosis (from Stirton 1931): Dental formula I2 C1 P1 M3. Two incisors well developed, I2 being larger than I3; I3 separated from the canine by space equal to transverse diameter of root of I3; incisors lying almost in straight line, outer pair possibly a little posterior in position. Canine well developed. P4 resembles that of Eptesicus, as far as one can tell from the remaining portions of the tooth; it differs from Eptesicus in possessing a decidedly more sinuous posterior border; posterior inner heel rounded and not angulate as in Eptesicus. W-pattern of cusps distinct and well developed on M1 and M2, tritubercular, tendency toward development of hypocone on M1, commissure connecting paracone with protocone less trenchant in Simonycteris than in Eptesicus; M1 longer anteroposteriorly whereas M2 is wider transversely. M3 small, apparently developed like that in Eptesicus.
Premaxillae fused with maxillae; rostrum short; nasals slightly elevated; frontal region rises abruptly above rostrum (giving a distinct snub-nosed appearance); orbits rounded in front; palate emarginate anteriorly, and basined posteriorly.

Remarks: Kurtén and Anderson 1980 referred this species to the genus Histiotus, but it differs strongly from Histiotus (Czaplewski, Morgan, and McLeod. In press).


Suaptenos whitei
Type Specimen: Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology 4056, left humerus.

Type Locality and Horizon: Thomas Farm local fauna, NE of Bell, Gilchrist County, Florida, USA; early Miocene (early Hemingfordian); Miocene clays and sands infilling a paleokarst sinkhole developed within Eocene marine limestone.

Diagnosis (from Lawrence 1943): May be distinguished by its large size (length of humerus 29.1 mm); curving shaft as seen in side view; proportionally broad epitrochlea (about 30 percent of total width of distal epiphysis); broad blunt spinous process not extending below capitellum, groove between it and trochlea moderate; deep median fossa on the epitrochlea, bounded posteriorly by a sharpened margin. The trochiter is elongated anteroposteriorly with basal portion not constricted and with only a slight concavity where it merges with the outer edge of the deltoid crest; fossa for insertion of the subspinous muscle exceptionally deep with a sharp projection at its antero-inferior edge.


Vespertilionidae, genus and species indet.
Records:
Coffee Ranch local fauna (type for Hemphillian land mammal age), Hemphill County, Texas, USA; late Miocene (late Hemphillian); Ogallala Formation (Dalquest 1983).The name Eptesicus hemphillensis Dalquest 1983 is a nomen dubium and should be abandoned (Czaplewski, Morgan, and McLeod, in press); the name was intended for a specimen that belongs to an indeterminate vespertilionid.

Blanco local fauna (type for Blancan land mammal age), Crosby County, Texas, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan); Ogallala Formation (Dalquest 1975). Dalquest 1975 reported a “bat, near Tadarida” from this site, but the specimen probably pertains to a vespertilionid of indeterminate genus (Czaplewski et al. 2003b).